Photodegradation and toxicity assessment of lambda cyhalothrin demonstrated by histopathological and biochemical indices in grass carp
Unsustainable use of agrochemicals has impacted non-target environments mainly the aquatic ecosystem. Lambda cyhalothrin (LCT), a common toxic insecticide has found its way to freshwater resources through run off, leaching and percolation. This has not only compromised the chemical integrity of water reserve but also challenged the survival of aquatic life forms. In this study, grass carp (widely consumed fish in Pakistan) was exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.75, 1 and 1.25µg/l) of LCT and consequent impacts were observed. Moreover, UV light was employed to assess the photodegradation of LCT within experimental tank waters. After 96hr co-exposure experiments, fish presented severe histopathological lesions in its vital organs such as muscles, gills brain and liver. Furthermore, biochemical indices of fish serum like glucose, total protein, triglycerides and amylase levels were also compromised resulting in hypoglycemia and fluctuating serum composition. UV light photo degraded LCT (at all concentrations) and three different UV exposure timings (10, 20 and 30min) when observed through gas chromatography. Gas chromatography results showed that as the initial concentration of LCT increased percent removal or photodegradation decreased. Maximum removal of LCT (62%) was observed at lowest exposure dose of 0.75µg/l and it decreased with increasing initial concentration of LCT.
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