Seasonal Variation of Heavy Metals in Sediments, Water, Shiny Nose Fish, Shrimp, and Periwinkle in Esuk Ekpo Eyo Beach, Akpabuyo, South-East Nigeria
The seasonal variations of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Hg, and Zn) in sediments, water samples, and shiny nose fish (Polydactylus quadrifilis), shrimp (Parapenaeopsis atlantica) and periwinkle (Tympanostonus fuscatus) of Esuk Ekpo Eyo Beach, Akpabuyo, Cross River State, South East Nigeria were investigated using AAS spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations (mg/l) of Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Fe, and Ni in sediments for the dry and wet seasons were 1.0040.658 mg/l, and 0.5460.406 mg/l for Cr, 0.462000.071 mg/l and 0.0200.010 mg/l for Cu, 0.3440.01594 mg/l and 0.02850.0062 mg/l for Pb, 0.019170.01693 mg/l and 0.021330.01089 mg/l for Cd, 0.17520.0112mg/l and 0.15030.1216mg/l for Ni, 64.003.964 mg/l and 39.914.187 mg/l for Fe. TThe concentrations (mg/l) for Cr in shiny nose fish, Fe in shrimp, and Cd in periwinkle for the dry and wet seasons were 0.0190.007 mg/l and 0.036 0.001 mg/l for Cr, 0.3270.001 mg/l and 0.7400.001 mg/l for Fe, 0.0210.007 and 0.0090.004 for Cd in periwinkle. The estimated daily intake of these metals in fish, shrimp, and periwinkle analyzed using the estimated daily intake formula were all below the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommended daily intake limits. Physicochemical analysis was carried out to determine the values of pH, TOC, TOM, silt, clay, and sand for sediments, also pH, turbidity, TDS, TSS, EC, and salinity for water samples. The pollution load index calculated for sediment showed moderately severe enrichment for the dry season and minor enrichment for the wet season while the modified degree of contamination of the geo-accumulation index in the sediments was less than 1.5, hence no contamination. The results of Pearson’s correlation matrix showed that significant correlations were observed among variables at 0.05 levels.
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