An Assessment of the Integrated Water Resources Management in Egypt

  • Ayman Ramadan Ayad Water and Utilities Sector Manager, European Union Delegation in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt
  • AbdelKawy Khalifa Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Mohamed ElFawy Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Keywords: Multi-Criteria Analysis, IWRM, GIS, Water Accounting, Water Resources Management


Egypt's water requirements increase due to the growing population, improved living standards, and agricultural land expansion to ensure food security. The proper planning and integrated water resources management in Egypt is a complex process that requires considering many different aspects: Available water resources, the water requirements from the various sectors, and water quality. As for water resources, the current deficit reaches up to 20 billion cubic meters per year, mainly covered by reusing agricultural drainage water in irrigation through mixing stations, with a significant negative impact on health and environmental standards. As for urban water and sanitation, the rapid population increase puts immense pressure on the existing network and the government to expedite its infrastructure assets to cope with such an increasing pace. The development of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was particularly recommended in the ministers' final statement at the International Conference on Water and the Environment in 1992 (so-called the Dublin principles). This concept aims to promote changes in practices that are considered fundamental to improved water resource management. This paper will provide an overall and comprehensive assessment of IWRM concept implantation in Egypt and pay particular attention to the concept implementation results against its objectives, key lessons, and recommendations to improve current and future sector financing options for modern water.


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How to Cite
Ayad, A., Khalifa, A., & ElFawy, M. (2021). An Assessment of the Integrated Water Resources Management in Egypt. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 9(4), 751-768.
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