Physicochemical, Heavy Metals and Microbiological Assessment of Wastewater in Selected Abattoirs in Ekiti State, Nigeria
This study was on the assessment of wastewater in three selected abattoir environments in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The selected abattoirs are Atikankan Abattoir, Ikere – Ekiti Abattoir and Iworoko Road Abattoir. Wastewater samples were collected in the three locations. The physicochemical, heavy metal analysis, and microbial analysis of the samples were carried out using standard methods. The six heavy metals analyzed were (Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel, Iron, Lead, and Manganese) using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS, VGP210). The result showed that the physicochemical parameters: Turbidity (96.83 – 182.26 NTU); Electrical Conductivity (948.67 – 1262.00 μScm-1); BOD (527.42 - 640.66 mg/L); COD (850.67 - 1033.33 mg/L); Phosphate (14.70 - 18.20mg/L) and Nitrate (50.73 - 77.85 mg/L) samples collected were above the WHO maximum permissible limits. Heavy metal analysis of the samples revealed that the concentrations of (Cd, Fe, and Pd) were higher than the FAO/WHO permissible limits while those of Cr, Ni, and Mn were within the safe limits. The microbial analysis revealed a high population of bacteria and fungi from all the samples collected from the three locations. In general, if the wastewater from these abattoirs is not treated before being discharged into water bodies, it could pose a great health risk to the environment.
Adelegan J. A. Environmental Policy and Slaughter House Waste in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2002, 1(2): p.56-64.
Ajah K. C., Ademiluyi. J. and Nnaji. C. C. Spatiality, Seasonality and Ecological Risks of Heavy Metals in the Activity of a Degenerate Municipal Central Dumpsite in Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 2015, 13 (1): p.15.
Bridges J. W. and Potter J. F. A Generic Comparison of the Airborne Risks to Human Health from Landfill and Incinerator Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste. The Environmentalist, 2000, 20: p.325-334.
Boadi K. O., Kuitunen .M. Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The Environmentalist, 2003, 23: p.211-218.
Amisu K. O, Coker A. O, On, S.L.W. and Isokpehi R. D. Arcobacter butzlieri Strains from Poultry Abattoir Effluent in Nigeria. East African Medical Journal, 2003, 80: p.218-221.
Harmanescu, M., Alda, L. M., Bordean, D. M., Gogoasa, I and Gergen, I. Heavy Metals Health Risk Assessment for Population via Consumption of Vegetables Grown in Old Mining Area; A Case Study: Banat County, Romania Chemistry Central Journal, 2011, 5: p.64-65.
Albu A. Assessment of Heavy Metal and Nitrate/Nitrite Residues in the Plant, Part of Food Chain and their Risk for Consumers, PhD Thesis, Ionescu de la Brad University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Iaşi, Romania. 2010.
Banat I. M., Franzetti .A. Gandolfi .I. Bestetti .G, Martinotti M. G., Fracchia .L., Smyth T. J. and Marchant .R. Microbial Biosurfactants Production, Applications and Future Potential. Application Microbiol Biotechnology, 2005, 87: p.427-444.
WHO, Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excetera and Grey Water: Wastewater Use in Agriculture (volume 2). Geneva, WHO, 2006, 2:219.
Mwesigwa R, P.K. Migwi , A.M. King’ori1 and P.A. Onjoro. Abattoir waste use in livestock diets: Uganda’s current situation. Int. Journal. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 2020, 10(1): p.129-134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3329/ijarit.v10i1.48105.
Sangodoyin, A. Y. and Agbawhe, O. M. Environmental Study on Surface and
Groundwater Pollutants from Abattoir Effluents. Bioresource Technology, 1992, 41: p.193-200.
Tritt, W. P. and Schuchardt, F. Materials Flow and Possibilities of Treating Liquid and Solid Wastes from Slaughterhouses in Germany. A Review. Bioresource Technology, 1992, 41, 235-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0960-8524(92)90008-L
FEPA/FMENV. Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in
Ipinmoroti. K, and Oshodi. O. Determination of Trace Metals in Fish, Associated with Water and Soil Sediments Fresh Fish Ponds. Discovery Innovatives, 1993, 5:138.
Akshay D. Shende and Girish R. Pophali. Anaerobic treatment of slaughter house wastewater; a review. Springer, 2020, 28, p.35-55.
Fawole, M. O. and Oso, B. A. Characterization of Bacteria: Laboratory Manual of Microbiology. Spectrum Book Ltd., Ibadan, 2004, p.24-33.
Cheesbrough, M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. CambridgeUniversity Press, 2006, 62.
Olutiola, P. O, Famurewa, O., and Sonntag, H. G.An Introduction to General Microbiology: A Practical Approach. Bolabay Publications, Ikeja, lagos, Nigeria, 2000, p.157-75.
Hunter, B. B. and Barnett, H. L. (2000) Illustrated Genera of Fungi, Imperfecti 3rd edition Burgess Publishing Company, Minnesota, U.S.A, 1972.
Ubwa, S. T., Atoo, G. H., Offem, J. O., Abah, J. and Asemave, K. Effect of Activities at the Gboko Abattoir on some Physical Properties and Heavy mMetals Levels of Surrounding Soil. International Journal of Chemistry, 2013, 5(1): p.49 - 57.
Akan J. C., F. I. Abdulrahman and E. Yusuf. “Physical and Chemical Parameters in Abattoir Wastewater Sample”. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 2010, 11(1): p.640-648.
Chukwu U. J. and Anuchi S. O. Impact of Abattoir Wastes on the Physicochemical Properties of Soils within Port Harcourt Metropolis. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2016, 5: p.17-21.
Nkwoji, J. A. Yakubu, A. Ajani, G. F. and Balogun, K. J. Seasonal Variations in Water Chemistry and Benthic Macro Invertebrates of a South Western Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of American Science, 2010, 6(3): p.85-92.
Ali Sani, Maryam Ismail Ahmad, Ibrahim Lawal Abdullahi. Toxicity effects of Kano central abattoir effluent on clarias gariepinus juvenile. Cell press journal, 2020, 6, (7): 04467.
World Health Organization. (2011) Training Package for the Health Sector: Adverse Health Effects of Heavy Metals in Children. World Health Organization. Retrieve from http://www.who.int/ceh/capacity/heavy_metals.pdf
Godwin Asukwo Ebong, Ekomobong Samuel Ettesam and Emmanuel Udo Dan (2020) Impact of Abattoir Wastes on Trace Metal Accumulation, Speciation, and Human Health–Related Problems in Soils within Southern Nigeria. Air, SAGE Journals, 2020, 13: p.1-14.
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.