Use of Aluminium Metal Embedded ThujaOccidentalis Leaves Carbon (AMETLC) for Fluoride Removal from Water: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies
In this research work, Aluminum metal embedded Thuja Occidentalis leaves carbon (AMETLC) is used an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from water. On batch technique, under key factors like pH, the dosage of adsorbent, variation of fluoride concentration and contact time, 92% of fluoride removal is observed at room temperature under optimum experimental conditions with an adsorbent particle size of <75 µm. The impact of existing negative ions on percentage removal of fluoride is studied, and it is noticed in the direction of PO43- > HCO3-> SO42- > NO3- > Cl-. The adsorbent is characterized by using FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD techniques. Experimental data reveal that the Langmuir isotherm model(maximum adsorption capacity obtained is 0.625 mg g-1) provided the best correlation (R2 = 0.988) and is well fit followed by pseudo-second-order kinetic model represents mono-layered, and chemisorptions are the rate-determining step for fluoride adsorption. Thermodynamic studies reveals better adsorption is attained at lower temperatures. The standard free energy (ΔH0) is observed as negative and the negative value of standard free energy (ΔH0) represents that the adsorption process is exothermic. Moreover, desorption study reveals that fluoride leaching takes place at a pH 13.0. In addition, succinct cost estimation was done for the AMETLC which offered one of the best alternatives for the removal of fluoride. The application of AMETLC is helpful to decrease the fluoride concentration in groundwater samples to meet the permissible limit according to BIS-2012 standards.
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