Inland Water Quality Study of Mount Lebanon Range in the Region of Middle East
The quality of inland water, fresh-water resources of Mount Lebanon range in the Middle East region, were studied. Water samples were collected from different places among Lebanese mountains and then analyzed and average concentration of selected Physico-chemical as well as inorganic parameters were reported. Rivers have their sources in the Lebanese mountains and travel about 20-30 km to the Mediterranean Sea. Sannine Aquifer at mountain district at an altitude of 1,500 m, is the major inland fresh water, groundwater, source for the coastal area and servicing many lands and cities. Many other inland water sources (wells) are also existing, however, many of them are saline and are not suitable for direct domestic use or even for irrigation. The study approach water quality assessment and level of pollution and potential impact to seawater of Mediterranean basin since there is a direct connection with the Seawater at each range.
Government of Canada. Water resourses and groundwater. website: https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/water-overview/sources/groundwater.html
Hughes TP, Graham NA, Jackson JB, Mumby PJ and Steneck RS. Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 2010; 619-680.
Kabbani A, Hammud H and Itani H. Spring Water of Lebanese Bekaa Valley. Ultra Science - Dimension of Pollution. 2001; 1, 48.
Kabbani A, Hammud H, Afifi N. and Mounzer A. Dissolved Oxygen and Water Hardness in Iklemm El-Kharroub and South Lebanoný. International Conference on Research Trends in Science and technology. RTST. 2002; 109-113.
Pimentel, D. Water resources: agriculture. the environment and society. Bioscience 1997; 47(2): 97–106.
Srour S, Sleiman B. Water management plan for the Litani River and Karoun reservoir. Workshop on Pollution in the Litani River and Lake Karoun, and Environmental Problems in the Western Bekaa and Rashaya. Lebanon.1998.
Hammud H. Water Quality Studies of Damour and Litani. Le Premier Colloque Franco Libanais sur L’eauet La Sante, Beirut, Lebanon. 1998.
Falah A, El-Khatib R, Yahfoufi N. Water Quality Survey of Arabian Peninsula in Regions of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. Canadian Journal on Chemical Engineering & Technology. 2012; 1-6.
Jaber BA. Development and Use of Non-conventional Water and Appropriate Technology to Manage Groundwater in the ESCWA Countries. Manama Bahrain Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia and New York USA. 1997; pp. 36–42.
Nimee M. The effects of agriculture on pollution in the Litani watershed and Karoun Lake, and the use of irrigation water. Workshop on Pollution in the Litani River and Lake Karoun, and Environmental Problems in the Western Bekaa and Rashaya. Lebanon.1998.
McDonald T. Nearly 200 water fountains in Jersey City schools contain lead above fed standards. The Jersey Journal. 2013.
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. Survey of economic and social developments in the ESCWA region 1997–1998. United Nations New York USA. 1998; 5/194 pp.
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Irrigation in the Near East in figures. FAO Rome Italy. 1997; 137 pp.
Gregersen HM, Draper S, Elz D. People and trees. The role of social forestry in sustainable development. World Bank, Washington DC USA. 1989.
Tuijil W. Improving water use in agriculture. Experience in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA. 1993; 158 pp.
ESCWA Countries, Manama, Bahrain. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia and New York USA. E/ESCWA/ENR/WG.3/CP.3. 1997; pp. 36–42.
Hamdan F. Waste trade in the Mediterranean: toxic attacks against Lebanon. Green Peace Mediterranean Office. Malta. 1995.
Hammud H. Determination of Soil Pollution as a Result of Solid Waste. Unesco Chair for Environmental Protection. Homos – Syria 1998.
Hammud H. Determination of Heavy Metals Toxic to Plants in Lebanese water and Soil. Unesco Chair for Environmental Protection. Homos – Syria. 1999.
Hammud H. Quality and Pollution Studies of Water in Lebanon. Ultra Science – Dimension of Pollution. 2001;1, 19.
Eaton A, Clesceri L, Greenberg A and Franson M. Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste Quality. APHA. 1995.
Kabbani A, Hammud H, Afifi N and Mounzer A. Dissolved Oxygen and Water Hardness in Iklemm El-Kharroub and South Lebanon. International Conference on Research Trends in Science and technology RTST. 2002; 109-113.
OWOW - US EPA. Coral Reefs. From Office of Wetlands. Oceans and Watersheds – USA. 2005 and 2012.
Shabib M, Al-Abed I, and Hellyer P. United Arab Emirates. A new perspective London. Trident Press. 2001.
Henderson JC. Tourism in Dubai: overcoming barriers to destination development. International Journal of Tourism Research. 2006; 87-99.
Rezai H, Wilson S, Claereboudt M, and Riegl B. Coral Reef Status in the Ropme Sea Area. Arabian/Persian Gulf, Gulf Of Oman and Arabian Sea in Status of Coral reefs of the World. Townsville Australian Institute of Marine Science. 2004; 155-170.
Pidwirny M. Fundamentals of Physical Geography. 2nd edition. University of British Columbia Okanagan Canada. 2006.
Kruger SN. A Blue Revolution: The Global Crisis of Water Quality and Accessibility. 2013.
Kabbani A, Hammud H, Itani H and Itani H. Spring Water of Lebanese Bekaa Valley. Ultra Science - Dimension of Pollution. 2001; 1-48.
Integrated Water Resources Management in CAMP. ARD. 2003.
Rohmann SO, Hayes JJ, Newhall RC, Monaco ME and Grigg RW. The area of potential shallow-water tropical and subtropical coral ecosystems in the United States. Coral Reefs. 2005; 370-383.