Biological Processes of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Environmental Remediation: A Review
Environmental contamination as a result of utilization of chemicals such as pesticide, fertilizer, radioactive nucleotide and organic substances has serious deteriorating effect to the environmental (soil, water and air) quality. To restore the integrity of our environment, different scientific approaches are put forward including bioremediation, mycoremediation and phytoremediation processes where all of which are eco-friendly. Both bacteria, fungi and plants use extracellular secretion, adsorption and biosorption processes to remove/convert toxic pollutants such as heavy metals into less toxic matter; uptake and bioaccumulate the environmental contaminants and sequester them. bacteria use to sequester heavy metal with the help of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins glutathione, fungi use plastocyanin, metallothionein and glutathione, whereas plants use phytochelatins and metallothioneins. This review provides broader focus on involvement of bacteria, fungi and plants in alleviating heavy metals from contaminated environment and mechanisms involves.
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