Biological Processes of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Environmental Remediation: A Review

  • Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker School of Agriculture Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Umar Aliyu Abdullahi School of Agriculture Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Nurul Elyni School of Agriculture Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Nadiawati Alias School of Agriculture Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
Keywords: Heavy metals, Bioremediation, Mycoremediation, Phytoremediation


Environmental contamination as a result of utilization of chemicals such as pesticide, fertilizer, radioactive nucleotide and organic substances has serious deteriorating effect to the environmental (soil, water and air) quality.  To restore the integrity of our environment, different scientific approaches are put forward including bioremediation, mycoremediation and phytoremediation processes where all of which are eco-friendly. Both bacteria, fungi and plants use extracellular secretion, adsorption and biosorption processes to remove/convert toxic pollutants such as heavy metals into less toxic matter; uptake and bioaccumulate the environmental contaminants and sequester them. bacteria use to sequester heavy metal with the help of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins glutathione, fungi use plastocyanin, metallothionein and glutathione, whereas plants use phytochelatins and metallothioneins. This review provides broader focus on involvement of bacteria, fungi and plants in alleviating heavy metals from contaminated environment and mechanisms involves.


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How to Cite
Khandaker, M., Abdullahi, U. A., Elyni, N., & Alias, N. (2021). Biological Processes of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Environmental Remediation: A Review. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 9(3), 601-608.
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