Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology (JIRB)</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">ISSN:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;2310-7588</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology (JIRB) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, open access, and free of charge journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of infertility and reproductive sciences. This journal was financed by&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">D</span><span class="SpellE">orma</span>&nbsp;Trading&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">Est</span>, publisher<a href="">,</a>&nbsp;Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.&nbsp;JIRB is an Open Access Journal Database&nbsp;<span class="il">for</span>&nbsp;the high visibility and promotion of your articles. JIRB is steered by a distinguished&nbsp;<a href="">Board of Editors</a>&nbsp;and is supported by an international reviewer team consisting of prominent individuals representing many well-known universities, colleges, and corporations in Germany, Spain, Korea, India, Bangladesh, and many more.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>To maintain a high-quality journal, manuscripts that appear in the JIRB Articles section have been subjected to a rigorous review process. This includes blind reviews by three or more members of the international editorial review team, followed by a detailed review by the JIRB editors. The JIRB has been financially and scientifically supported by <a href="">the Jami Institute of Technology</a>. The Journal welcomes original research contributions (previously unpublished) from all established areas of infertility and reproductive sciences.&nbsp;</p> Dorma Journals en-US Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology 2310-7588 Comparison between Sperm Preparation before Cryopreservation and Post-Thawing Sperm Preparation using Density Gradient Centrifugation in Normozoospermic Semen Samples <p>Sperm cryopreservation has been considered as an&nbsp;efficient procedure for management of male fertility. Different freezing protocols have been developed to maximize the post freeze quality. The current study investigates the differences between sperm preparation before and after freeze. 120 Semen analysis reports from 18 sperm donors were analysed. 60 semen analysis reports were from samples that were frozen then washed (Group 1: Post-wash) while the other 60 semen analysis reports were obtained from samples that were washed then frozen (Group 2: Pre-wash). Sperm concentration and progressive motility were evaluated for each group and compared. Sperm concentration was higher in the pre-wash group compared to post-wash (33.05 ±12.9 vs 26.13 ±13.36, respectively). Progressive motility was higher in the post-wash group (82.3 ±14.9 vs 51.6 ±8.2). There was a significant decrease in sperm concentration between fresh samples and both (post- and pre-wash) results. Significant decreases in progressive motility were found in both methods. Sperm freeze using fresh semen samples and washed samples resulted in significant decrease in post freeze progressive motility. However, fresh samples had a higher post freeze recovery rate compared to washed samples (72.15% vs 56.32%). Semen preparation by density gradient centrifugation before freezing resulted in better sperm concentration, while the preparation of spermatozoa after freezing had a higher progressive motility. Therefore, sperm freezing methods should be adapted according to semen samples quality.</p> Moungala Lionel Wildy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 10 2 19 21 10.47277/JIRB/10(2)/19 Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Exposure and Human Reproductive Health- A Narrative Overview <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 14.2pt;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Carbon disulfide is one of the important solvents and is utilized in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride, cellophane, rayon, rubber and is used extensively as a solvent in various processes etc. The long-term exposure to CS<sub>2 </sub>might be related to certain adverse health outcomes. The data were gathered with respect to CS<sub>2 </sub>exposure and human reproductive health and outcome through the internet by searching various websites. The data available pointed out that women workers who were exposed to CS<sub>2</sub> in the workplace for a longer duration of time may experience adverse effects on menstruation patterns and might affect the reproductive health of the exposed workers. While its exposure may deteriorate the semen quality based upon the studies available mainly on viscose rayon factory workers exposed to CS<sub>2 </sub>occupationally. Some inadequate data are also available on alterations in reproductive hormonal levels in CS<sub>2</sub> exposed workers. However, more data are necessary on the impact of CS<sub>2</sub> exposure on human reproduction and pregnancy outcomes as additional precise data are needed with regards to exposure and affect parameters with reverence to CS<sub>2 </sub>exposure. However, positive hostile impact data on CS<sub>2 </sub>exposure on certain reproductive endpoints indicate reducing/checking/preventing workers from exposure to CS<sub>2</sub> in the workplace to protect the worker’s reproductive health or pregnancy outcome.</span></p> Anupama Sharma Suman Choudhary Bharat Patel Sunil Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 10 2 22 27 10.47277/JIRB/10(2)/22 Effect of Tobacco Usage Through Smoking, Chewing, Environmental/Secondhand Tobacco Smoke on Human Reproduction, Pregnancy, or its Outcome-A Descriptive Overview <p>Humans are exposed to tobacco smoke and various tobacco related components while smoking, chewing, or through environmental/secondhand tobacco smoke etc. Tobacco usage causes huge mortality and morbidity. The literature was collected through searching the internet using various keywords and appropriate articles were included. The impact of tobacco smoking, chewing, or environmental/secondhand tobacco smoke on reproductive health and pregnancy outcome is summarized in this overview. Based upon data available, tobacco smoking might relate to erectile dysfunction, deterioration of semen quality, sperm DNA damage, impairment of hormones production and circulation, fertility potential impairment, in male and male-mediated hostile birth outcomes. While data on other forms of tobacco usage with regards to semen quality/ male reproduction is less documented than smoking. The data on females insinuated that tobacco usage affects the mensuration cycle, sexual pleasure, hormone production and release, fertility potential, etc. Prenatal tobacco exposure affects the pregnancy or outcome, birth weight, developmental parameters, menarche, puberty age, etc. In conclusion, the data available suggest that tobacco usage in any manner is harmful to the reproductive health of both sexes and affect pregnancy outcome.</p> Sunil Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 10 2 28 40 10.47277/JIRB/10(2)/28