Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology (JIRB)</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">ISSN:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;2310-7588</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology (JIRB) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, open access, and free of charge journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of infertility and reproductive sciences. This journal was financed by&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">D</span><span class="SpellE">orma</span>&nbsp;Trading&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">Est</span>, publisher<a href="">,</a>&nbsp;Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.&nbsp;JIRB is an Open Access Journal Database&nbsp;<span class="il">for</span>&nbsp;the high visibility and promotion of your articles. JIRB is steered by a distinguished&nbsp;<a href="">Board of Editors</a>&nbsp;and is supported by an international reviewer team consisting of prominent individuals representing many well-known universities, colleges, and corporations in Germany, Spain, Korea, India, Bangladesh, and many more.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>To maintain a high-quality journal, manuscripts that appear in the JIRB Articles section have been subjected to a rigorous review process. This includes blind reviews by three or more members of the international editorial review team, followed by a detailed review by the JIRB editors. The JIRB has been financially and scientifically supported by <a href="">the Jami Institute of Technology</a>. The Journal welcomes original research contributions (previously unpublished) from all established areas of infertility and reproductive sciences.&nbsp;</p> Dorma Journals en-US Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology 2310-7588 Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Genital Abnormalities in Bulls Slaughtered at the SODEPA Industrial Abattoir, Douala, Cameroon <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of genital tract abnormalities in slaughtered bulls at the SODEPA Industrial Abattoir, Littoral Region. A total of 503 healthy bulls were randomly selected and examined from July 2020 to January 2021. Before slaughter, the animals were characterized by their species, breed, age, weight, and Body Condition Score (BCS) during ante mortem inspection. Following slaughter, visual inspection, palpation, and dissection of the entire genital tract of each male were inspected for gross pathological abnormalities via post mortem examination. Out of 503 bulls, 380 (75.5%) were affected by one or more gross genital abnormalities of unidentified causes. Means age (years), weight (kg) and BCS were 6.7± 1.93; 186.83 ± 17.08 and 2.77 ± 0.42 respectively. Balanoposthitis was the most frequent disorder with an overall prevalence rate of 30% (n=151/503) followed by postithis (21.5%; n=108/503), hematoma (14.9%; n=75/503), unilateral testicular hypoplasia (8.9%; n=45/503), hydrocele (2.4%; n=12/503), white buttons (2.2%; n=11/503) and epididymitis (2%; n=10/503). The study shows that a high rate of gross reproductive disorders was on adult bulls (244/380). Age and body condition did not affect the prevalence of any abnormality (P&gt;0.05) except in balanoposthitis which was significantly varied among age group (P=0.003). There was a strong correlation between scrotal cellulitis and seminoma (r=0.706) and a moderate correlation between hydrocele and epididymitis (r=0.44). The high prevalence obtained in this study indicates that attention should be given to the reproductive management of bulls in Cameroon.</p> Justin Kouamo Larissa Egbe Eta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 9 4 136 141 10.47277/JIRB/9(4)/136 Hormonal Disorders among Stone Miners in Igarra, Akoko Edo Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria <p>Mining releases several reproductive toxicants during mining processes and occupationally exposed miners could be directly affected. The awareness of reproductive health hazards may help modify the lifestyle of individuals at risk. This study seeks to determine the hormonal status of occupationally exposed male stone miners in Edo North, Edo, Nigeria. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and testosterone were determined in 146 stone miners age range 18-40 years and 50 age-matched non-occupationally male subjects using enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay method. Data were compared using chi square or Students t-test as appropriate. Serum LH and testosterone were significantly lower (p&lt;0.001) while serum FSH and prolactin were significantly higher (p&lt;0.001) among stone miners than non-stone miners. The hormonal imbalance was observed among 30.8% of stone miners and hormonal disorders observed were 6.2% with hyperprolactinaemia, 24.7% with hypogonadism while 69.2% had normal hormone levels. Hormonal abnormalities are common among stone miners. Further study involving a large population is required to know the magnitude of the potential danger to reproductive health in humans.</p> Justice Ogie Ogene Mathias Abiodun Emokpae ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 9 4 142 146 10.47277/JIRB/9(4)/142 The Impact of COVID 19 Pandemic on Pregnancy Outcomes of ART Cycles <p>The aim was to detect the rate of Covid-19 positivity in asymptomatic infertile patients admitted to ART Department during the pandemic and also investigated the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on early pregnancy loss rates and pregnancy outcomes of ART cycles in Turkey. This cross‐sectional study presents an analysis of prospective data collected at a single tertiary hospital. 346 couples were screened for Covid -19 PCR positivity during the pandemic. 185 fresh, non-donor, IVF pregnancies were reviewed in periods of 1 year before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. A total of 346 asymptomatic infertile couples were screened for Covid-19 positivity upon admission to the hospital for infertility treatment during the pandemic and Covid-19 positivity was defined as 2.1 %. The groups were compared in terms of clinical and laboratory parameters; there were significant differences in peak E2 levels, gonadotropin duration day, gonadotrophin dose, endometrium thickness, and &gt;14 mm follicle count on HCG trigger day. There were no significant differences in the oocyte, M2, 2PN number, the total number of the embryos between the groups. When the study and control groups were compared in terms of early pregnancy losses the results were found to be similar. Although there was a difference in the drug requirement and response required for ovarian hyperstimulation, no difference was found in the number of oocytes collected, the number of M2, and the number of embryos obtained. In our study, this situation did not affect the rates of early pregnancy loss.</p> Nafiye Yilmaz Gul Nihal Buyuk Duygu Tugrul Ersak Burak Ersak Inci Kahyaoglu Derya Özdemir Tas Ozlem Moraloglu Tekin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-27 2021-11-27 9 4 155 159 10.47277/JIRB/9(4)/155 The Development of a Simplified Swim-up Method for Sperm Processing <p>Established sperm preparation techniques have been under the spotlight in support of the affordable assisted reproduction drive. Affordability and safety are particularly relevant in developing countries, with restricted access to basic infertility care due to limited resources. This study investigated a modified sperm swim-up method in comparison to a commercial sperm preparation kit. Spermatozoa were processed using three different volume disposable syringes: 5 ml (SW-5), 10 ml (SW-10), and 20 ml (SW-20), with respect to concentration and motility. Hereafter, the syringe method that resulted in the highest sperm yield was matched against a commercially available device (SEP-D kit) for the evaluation of sperm motility, concentration, vitality, morphology, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation. Semen processed using the SW-10 method resulted in a higher total motile sperm count (6.62 x10<sup>6</sup>), in comparison to the SW-5 and SW-20 methods. When compared to the commercial device, spermatozoa harvested with the SW-10 method presented with significantly improved total motility (75.35% vs 87.05%) and concentration (14.35 x10<sup>6</sup>/ml vs 17.10 x10<sup>6</sup>/ml, p&lt;0.0001). Furthermore, there was a significant increase in spermatozoa viability after processing using the SW-10 (79.47% vs 70.05 for the hypo-osmotic swelling test, 82.31% vs 72.00% for eosin and nigrosin test, p&lt;0.001), and fewer spermatozoa with DNA damage (13.70% vs 23.20%, p&lt;0.0001). This modified swim-up method can therefore be integrated into a cost-effective intrauterine insemination treatment for selected patients in a low-resource setting.</p> Moungala Lionel Wildy Laura Boyd Jozef Fourie Opheelia Makoyo Carin Huyser ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-02 2022-01-02 9 4 160 167 10.47277/JIRB/9(4)/160 Prevalence, Etiology and Risk Factors Associated With Chronic Metritis in Small Ruminants in Adamawa Region (Cameroon) <p>The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk factors of chronic metritis in female small ruminants slaughtered at the Bantaï slaughterhouse. A total of three hundred and ninety (390) non-gravid females were characterized, their uterus were collected and examined. Clinical endometritis and pyometra were diagnosed. For subclinical endometritis, the presence of an inflammatory state of the endometrium in the absence of abnormal secretions in the vagina and the anatomopathological examination of histological sections from the cervix, body and horn of the uterus to confirm the diagnosis were used. Uteri with clinical endometritis or pyometra were subjected to microbiological sampling to detect the bacterial species involved. An overall prevalence of 16.15% was recorded, with prevalences of 11.02%, 3.07% and 2.05% corresponding to clinical, subclinical and pyometrial endometritis respectively. In positive females, the bacterial species <em>Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Non-pathogenic E.coli, Pathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter spp, D Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella cholerae arizonae, Proteus spp or Provendencia spp, Citrobacter koseri </em>and <em>Vibrio fluvialis</em> were isolated. Body condition score (BCS) was found to be the main risk factor in the occurrence of chronic metritis while factors such as species, age and weight were found to be at risk for subclinical endometritis and pyometra. The origin of the animals was significantly associated with the average number of co-infesting bacteria. In conclusion chronic metritis is present in the goat and sheep populations of Adamawa region.</p> Claude Landry Makuetamang Doumtsop Justin Kouamo Nicolas Yanou Njintang Bernard Viban Tangwa Lorucha Margot Mouyobo Amatama Camille Teitsa Zangue ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 9 4 147 154 10.47277/JIRB/9(3)/136