male infertility: etiology & evaluation

  • Dr Rizwan Ali Lakho Department of Urology, Teaching Hospital, SMBBMU Larkana, Pakistan
  • Dr Ufaque Batool K. Samo Department of Physiology, BMSI, Jinnah post-graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Dr Reema Samo Department of OBGYN, Sheikh Zaid Women Hospital SMBBMU, Larkana, Pakistan
  • Dr Khushboo Jawed Samo Department of OBGYN, Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Keywords: male Infertility, Azoospermia, oligospermia, semen analysis, varicocele


Infertility is defined as the unable to conceive despite having one year of regular unprotected intercourse. It affects both genders globally. The increase in incidence is also due to delaying the start of families by many couples. Infertility is generally classified into two categories when a couple is unable to conceive after at least 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse is termed primary, while any couple who has conceived previously but is not unable to conceive again is called secondary. The couple should consider the evaluation, if either partner has any known risk factor for infertility (e.g., advanced female age, male with a history of undescended testicles), or if the couple has concerns about their fertility potential. In most cases, it is recommended that both partners be evaluated simultaneously to prevent any delays in successful treatment. According to the WHO report on reproductive health, infertility may affect 15% of couples per year globally, of these, 20% will have a male factor that is solely responsible; male factors will contribute in an additional 30% of cases. When a man has any problem with his reproductive system it can lead to male infertility. Exposure to toxic substances, chemotherapy, radiation, and physical problems with the testes. Lifestyle, notably poor health habits and conditions (smoking, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, use of drugs, testosterone, or anabolic steroids) may cause infertility in both sexes. Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism), Past inflammation of the prostate or past genital infections and/or high fever, Injury to or Torsion (constricted blood flow to a testicle), exposure to certain medications, pesticides, and other toxins, injury to the spinal cord, prostate surgery, hormone problems, genetic or chromosomal conditions testicular cancer, vasectomy, sexually transmitted diseases, varicocele (dilated veins in the scrotum), Ejaculatory disturbances Early or late puberty, Exposure of the genitals to high temperatures, Hernia repair can cause infertility.


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How to Cite
Lakho, D. R., Samo, D. U. B., Samo, D. R., & Samo, D. K. (2022). male infertility: etiology & evaluation. Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 10(3), 58-64. Retrieved from
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