Comparison of Embryo Transfer Techniques in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Cycles

  • Sarah Ligon Department of Gynecologic Surgery and Obstetrics, Madigan Army Medical Center, Washington, USA
  • Jose Roble Department of Gynecologic Surgery and Obstetrics, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Tripler Army Medical Center, Hawaii, USA
  • Kimberly Chaffin Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Hawaii, USA
  • Bruce Pier Department of Gynecologic Surgery and Obstetrics, Irwin Army Community Hospital, Fort Riley, Kansas, USA
  • Gary Levy Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Hawaii, USA
Keywords: Embryo transfer, technique, pregnancy, female, adult, pregnancy rate, retrospective studies


Different transfer techniques have been developed to optimize the embryo transfer process and maximize the probability of pregnancy after transfer. The purpose of this study is to compare the afterload (AL) and the immediate post-mock (PM) embryo transfer (ET) techniques. The aim of this study is to determine if the AL ET technique results in a higher ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) compared to the immediate PM ET technique. The study population included 251 women between the ages of 18 and 49 at the time of transfer who underwent an autologous, fresh, or cryopreserved ET between 01 July 2013 and 01 September 2016 at our academic center. Embryo transfer was performed with either the AL or the immediate PM transfer technique Main outcome measure is OPR (presence of fetal cardiac activity on a first-trimester ultrasound). There was no significant difference in OPR between patients that underwent AL transfers and PM transfers (AL 51%, PM 57%; P=.378). OPR for frozen embryo transfers was superior for AL transfers compared to PM transfers (AL 68%, PM 31%; P=.005). OPR was superior with the PM technique for fresh embryo transfers (AL 43%, PM 63%; P=.002). OPR decreased with increasing age in the AL cohort, but not in the PM cohort (P=.004). There appears to be no overall difference in OPR between AL and PM transfer techniques. However, with vitrified embryos, the AL technique demonstrated a higher OPR, and with fresh embryos, the PM technique resulted in a superior OPR.


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How to Cite
Ligon, S., Roble, J., Chaffin, K., Pier, B., & Levy, G. (2022). Comparison of Embryo Transfer Techniques in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Cycles. Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 10(1), 15-18.
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