Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Genital Abnormalities in Bulls Slaughtered at the SODEPA Industrial Abattoir, Douala, Cameroon

  • Justin Kouamo School of Veterinary Medicine and Sciences, the University of Ngaoundere, P.O. BOX 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
  • Larissa Egbe Eta School of Veterinary Medicine and Sciences, the University of Ngaoundere, P.O. BOX 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Keywords: Male, Reproduction, Pathology, Littoral Region, Cameroon

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of genital tract abnormalities in slaughtered bulls at the SODEPA Industrial Abattoir, Littoral Region. A total of 503 healthy bulls were randomly selected and examined from July 2020 to January 2021. Before slaughter, the animals were characterized by their species, breed, age, weight, and Body Condition Score (BCS) during ante mortem inspection. Following slaughter, visual inspection, palpation, and dissection of the entire genital tract of each male were inspected for gross pathological abnormalities via post mortem examination. Out of 503 bulls, 380 (75.5%) were affected by one or more gross genital abnormalities of unidentified causes. Means age (years), weight (kg) and BCS were 6.7± 1.93; 186.83 ± 17.08 and 2.77 ± 0.42 respectively. Balanoposthitis was the most frequent disorder with an overall prevalence rate of 30% (n=151/503) followed by postithis (21.5%; n=108/503), hematoma (14.9%; n=75/503), unilateral testicular hypoplasia (8.9%; n=45/503), hydrocele (2.4%; n=12/503), white buttons (2.2%; n=11/503) and epididymitis (2%; n=10/503). The study shows that a high rate of gross reproductive disorders was on adult bulls (244/380). Age and body condition did not affect the prevalence of any abnormality (P>0.05) except in balanoposthitis which was significantly varied among age group (P=0.003). There was a strong correlation between scrotal cellulitis and seminoma (r=0.706) and a moderate correlation between hydrocele and epididymitis (r=0.44). The high prevalence obtained in this study indicates that attention should be given to the reproductive management of bulls in Cameroon.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Cattle and small ruminant Production systems in sub-saharan Africa: A systematic review, Rome. 2002.

Kouamo J, Obama SFF, Sassa MS. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Genital Diseases of Goats and Ewes in the far North Region of Cameroon. PSM Vet. Res. 2019;4(3):62-73.

Umaru MA, Adeyeye, AA, Abubakar A, Garba HS. Retrospective analysis of reproductive cases of domestic ruminant animals in Sokoto, Nigeria. Anim. Res. Intern. 2009;6(1):946-948.

MINEPIA (Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Husbandry). Schéma directeur pour le développement des filières de l’élevage au Cameroun. 2011; volume II: cartographie des filières, 64.

Ebangi AL, Erasmus GJ, Mbah DA, et al. Genetic trends for growth in the Gudali and Wakwa cattle breeds of Cameroon. South African J. Anim. Sci. 2000;30:1.

Ngalim AN. Cattle rearing systems in the North West Region of Cameroon: historical trends on changing techniques and strategies. J. Educ. Pol. 2015; 2: 175-189.

FAO, Trends in Livestock Production in Africa, FAOSTAT Yearbook, 2016th edition, 2016.

Hafez ESE. Reproduction in Farm Animals.6 ed. School of Medicine, Wayne State University. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. 1993; 405-439.

McEntee M. Reproductive Pathology of Domestic Mammals, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 2012.

Chenoweth PJ. Reproductive selection of males: current and future perspectives. Revista Brasileira Reprod. Anim. 2011; 35: 133-138.

Ball PJH, Peters AR. Reproduction in Cattle, 3rd Edn, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK. 2004. doi: 10.1002/9780470751091

Kastelic JP. Male involvement in fertility and factors affecting semen quality in bulls. Anim. Front. 2013; 3: 20-25. https://doi.org/10.2527/af.2013 -0029

Hopkins FM. Diseases of the reproductive system of the bull in: Young Quist RS Threlfall WR., editors. Current Therapy in Large animal Theriogen., 2. Missouri: Saunders Elsevier. 2007; 240-270. doi: 10.1016/B978-072169323-1.50033-5.

Parkinson T. Fertility, subfertility sub infertility in male animals. In: Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GCW., editors. Veterinary reproduction and obstetrics. Sounders Elsevier. 2009; 705-730. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2003.10.017.

Chenoweth PJ. Bull libido/serving capacity. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Anim. Pract. 1997; 13: 331-344. doi: 10.1016/S0749-0720(15)30345-5

Chenoweth PJ, Kastelic JP. Clinical reproductive physiology and endocrinology of bulls. In: Young Quist R. 2007. doi: 10.1016/B978-072169323-1.50033-5.

Alosta RA, Vaughan L, Collins JD. An abattoir survey of ovine reproductive tracts in Ireland. Theriogenology. 1998; 50: 457-464. doi: 10.1016/S0093-691X(98)00152-6

Pace JE, Wakeman DL. Determining the age of cattle by their teeth, CIR253. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2003.

Nicholson MJ, Butterworth MH. A guide to condition scoring of zebu cattle, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa. 1986.

Eshetu G, Habtemariam K, Samuel A. Gross testicular abnormalities in indigenous breeds of bulls in Eastern Ethiopia. J. Ad. Vet. Anim. Res. 2017; 4(2): 200-206.

Migbaru K, Sisay G, Kasa T. Study on Gross Testicular Disorders of Bulls Slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoirs Enterprise. J. Reprod. Infertil. 2014; 5: 45-49.

Barth A.B ull Breeding Soundness Evaluation, 2nd Edition, Saskatoon: Western Canada Association of Bovine Practitioners. 2000; 6–7. doi: 10.1017/S1751731118000538.

Silva C, Delgado R, Magaña J, Reyes. Abnormalities of testicular and scrotal development in bulls of three breeds in southeast México. Avanc. Invest. Agrop. 2008; 12: 21-31.

Alwan AF, Amin FA. Anatomical and histological lesions causing infertility in local goats, Sulaimania Region, AL-Qadsiya. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2010; 138-146.

Basrur PK, Basrur VR. Genes in genital malformations and male reproductive health In Animal Reproduction. 2004; 1: 64-85.

Published
2021-11-25
How to Cite
Kouamo, J., & Eta, L. (2021). Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Genital Abnormalities in Bulls Slaughtered at the SODEPA Industrial Abattoir, Douala, Cameroon. Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 9(4), 136-141. https://doi.org/10.47277/JIRB/9(4)/136
Section
Regular publication process (free of charge)