Dose-dependent Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum) Extract feeding on Semen Characteristics and Testes in Wistar Rats

Garlic consumption and sperm indices

  • Mathias Abiodun Emokpae Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Olatunde Olaode Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Keywords: Garlic, Semen, Testes, Wistar rats

Abstract

Allium sativum (garlic) is widely used all over the world for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. However, the dose-dependent effect of garlic on the male reproductive system in apparently healthy subjects has not been sufficiently evaluated. The objective of the study was to determine the dose-dependent impact of aqueous extract of garlic on semen characteristics and testicular morphology in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups of five rats in each group.. Group 1 (control) was given feed and water only, group 2 was given 500mg/kg body weight (BW) of Allium sativum extract, group 3 was given 750mg/kg BW of Allium sativum extract and group 4 received 1000mg/kg BW of Allium sativum extract. All groups were given feed and water ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were sacrificed; the testis and epididymis were collected for laboratory analysis. The epididymis was homogenized in buffer, diluted, and analyzed microscopically. The data generated were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Data showed that the administration of high concentrations of garlic caused teratozoospermia characterized by a poorly formed head, tailless sperm cells, and bent body with premature sperm cells. Histological findings also showed mild distortions in the shape of seminiferous tubules, congestions in interstitial blood vessels (suggestive of inflammation), slight reductions in size, and mildly thickened outlines of seminiferous tubules. Sperm progressive motility was significantly higher in the high dose group while no significant difference was observed in sperm count, morphology, viability, and pH. The consumption of high concentrations of  Allium sativum may lead to adverse consequences on teratozoospermia and inflammation of the interstitial blood vessels in Wistar rats. Therefore, raw garlic should be consumed with caution as high concentrations may be deleterious to male reproductive health.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Okoro VMO, Mbajiorgu CA, Mbajiorgu EF. Semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks influenced by supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture at 35-41 weeks of age. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 2016; 45(8):433-440. doi: 10.1590/S1806-92902016000800002.

Omotoso G, Oyewopo A, Kadir R. Effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic) on semen parameters in Wistar rats. Internet Journal of Urology. 2010;7(2):1-5.

Roozbeh N, Rostami S, Abdi F. A review on herbal medicine with fertility and infertility characteristics in males. Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2016;19(13):18-32.

Anbari K, Ghanadi K. Use of complementary and alternative mediecine methods and its related factors in person referred to health centers in Khorramabad. Complementary Medicine Journal Arak University of Medical Sciences, 2015;4(4):987-999.

Rezaeian Z, Yazdekhasti H, Nasri S. Effect of selenium on human sperm parameters after freezing and thawing procedures. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 2016; 5(6):462-466. doi: 10.1016/j.apjr.2016.11.001.

Amidi, F., Ebrahimi, S., Abbasi, M., Yazdani, M., Ghasemi, S. Effects of saffron extract on sperm parameters in rats with experimentally induced varicocele. The Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. 2014;18(5):4-11.

Bastampoor F, Sadeghi H, Hosseini S. The Petroselinum crispum L. hydroalcoholic extract effects on pituitary- gonad axis in adult rats. Armaghane Danesh. 2014;19(4):305-313.

World Health Organization (WHO). Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen Fifth Edition, 2010,p.17, 56-67.

Morankinyo AO, Oloyo AK, Raji Y, Adegoke OA. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) on testicular functions in the rat. Nigerian Journal of Health Biomedical

Sciences. 2008;7(2):26-30.

Al-Bekairi AM, Shah AH, Qureshi S. Effect of Allium sativum on epididymal spermatozoa, estradiol-treated mice and general toxicity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1990; 29:117-125. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(90)90049-Y.

Abdelmalik S. W. Histological and ultrastructural changes in the adult male albino rat testes following chronic crude garlic consumption. Annals of Anatomy. 2011; 193(2):134-141. doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2010.12.003.

Dixon RA. Phytoestrogens. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 2004;55:225-261. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141729.

Rahman M.S. Allicin and other functional active components in garlic: health benefits and bioavailability. Internet Journal of Food Propagation, 2007;10(2):245-268. doi: 10.1080/10942910601113327.

Pari L, Murugavel P. Diallyl tetrasulfide improves cadmium induced alterations of acetylcholinesterase, ATPases and oxidative stress in brain of rats. Toxicology. 2007; 5;234(1-2):44-50. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2007.01.021.

Khalil WKB, Ahmed KA, Park MH,• et al. The inhibitory eVects of garlic and Panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 on the genotoxicity, biochemical, and histological changes induced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in male rats. Archives of Toxicology. 2008;82:183-195. doi: 10.1007/s00204-007-0237-y.

Sadik NA. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 2008;22:345- 353. doi: 10.1002/jbt.20247.

Kasuga S, Uda N, Kyo E, et al. Pharmacologic activities of aged garlic extract in comparison with other garlic preparations. The Journal of Nutrition.2001;131:1080-1084. doi1: 0.1093/jn/131.3.1080S.

Ola-Mudathir KF, Suru SM, Fafunso MA, et al. Protective roles of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008;46: 3604-3611. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.004.

Published
2021-09-20
How to Cite
Emokpae, M., & Olaode, O. (2021). Dose-dependent Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum) Extract feeding on Semen Characteristics and Testes in Wistar Rats. Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 9(3), 130-135. Retrieved from https://dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/457
Section
Regular publication process (free of charge)