Sugar Intake Disrupts some Reproductive Functions in Female Wistar Rats
The increasing rate of infertility has raised a lot of concern. Studies show that lifestyle and dietary factors affect reproductive functions. Sugar, a universal sweetener in the diet has been linked with metabolic syndrome and disruption of male reproductive functions. The objective of the current study is the assessment of the effects of sugar on some reproductive functions of female Wistar rats. Twenty (20) adult female Wistar rats (180-200 g) randomly divided into four (n=5), received 10 mL/Kg distilled water (group 1 - control), 6.25, 20, and 64 mg/Kg Sugar (groups 1, 2, 3) daily by oral gavage for three (3) weeks, respectively. Parameters evaluated were fasting blood glucose, estrous cycle, histology and relative weights of reproductive organs, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol hormone levels. Sugar significantly decreased (p < 0.05) fasting blood glucose level and relative weights of ovary and uterus compared to control. It also significantly reduced the frequency of estrus and diestrus phases but caused significant increases (p < 0.05) in the metestrus phase of the estrous cycle and FSH level in comparison with the control. There were anomalies in the histology of the ovary and uterus. Therefore sugar disrupted the estrous cycle, altered the weights and cytoarchitecture of the ovary and uterus. Sugar consumption has harmful effects on some reproductive functions of female Wistar rats.
Panth N, Gavarkovs A, Tamez M, Mattei J. The influence of diet on fertility and the implications for public health nutrition in the United States. Frontiers in Public Health. 2018;6(211):1-7.
Mahmad A, Shaharum MS, Saad B, Dash GK. Epiphyllum oxypetalum Haw.: A lesser known medicinal plant. Indonesia American Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 2017;4(10):3670-3672.
Vijisarah ED, Subramanian A. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus leaves. International Journal of Current Biotechnology. 2014;2(1):19-23.
Kanthal FR, Dey A, Satyavathi K, Bhojoraju P. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in methanolic extract of Luntuca runcinata. Pharmceutical Research. 2014;6(1):58-61.
Thomas E, Aneesh TP, Thomas DG, Anandam R. GC-MS analysis of phytochemical compounds present in the rhizomes of Nervilia aragoana. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Clinical Research. 2013;6(3):68-74.
Arora S, Kumar G, Meena S. Screening and evaluation of bioactive components of Cenchrus ciliaris L. by GC-MS analysis. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2017;8(6):69-76.
Lakshmi G, Anandaraj L, Santhi R, Priyadharshini AM. Phytochemical screening of Nerium oleander leaves and Momordica charantia leaves. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2011;2(1):234-246.
Krishnaiah D, Sarbatly R, Nithyanandam R. A review of the antioxidant potential of medicinal plant species. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2011;89:217-233.
Meskin MS, Bidlack WR, Davies AJ, Omaye ST. Phytochemicals in Nutrition and Health. Boca Ratoo CRC Press, India. 2002; 224p.
Sachidananda MP, Sudeendra P, Jose M, Shrikara MP. Anticandidal effect of extract of Bridelia stipularis. Journal of International Medicine and Dentistry. 2015;2:104-110.
Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebbardt SE, Prior RL. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2004;5(2):4026-4037.
Firdous SM. Phytochemicals for treatment of diabetes. Excli Journal. 2014;13:451-453.
Hill AF. Economic Botany: A Text Book of Useful Plants and Plant Products (2nd Edition). Mcgraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York. 1952; 272p.
Vedarathy S. Scope and importance of traditional medicine. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2003;2:236-239.
Katewa SS, Chaudhary BL, Jain A. Fork herbal medicines from tribal area of Rajasthan, Indian. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2004;92: 41-46.
Aneesh TP, Mohamed H, Sonal SM, Manjusree M, Deepa TV. International market scenario of traditional Indian herbal drugs. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2009;3(3):180-190.
Halim AA, Jawan JA, Ismail SR, Othman N, Masnin MH. Traditional knowledge and enviromental conservation among indigenous people in Ranau, Sabah. Global Journal of Human Social Science Geography, Geo-Sciences, Environmental and Disaster Management. 2013;13:5-11.
Fialkov AB, Steiner U, Jones L, Amirav A. A new type of GC-MS with advanced capabilities. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2006;2(51):47-58.
Azhagumurugan C, Rajan MK. GC-MS analysis of phytochemical constituents and nematicidal activities of leaf extract of Magilam, Mimusops elengi. World Journal of Zoology. 2014;9(4):239-243.
Baskaran A, Karthikeyan V, Rajasekaran CS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of ethanolic extracts of Barleria longiflora. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;5(4):1233-1246.
Konig WA, Hochmuth DH. Enantion selective gas chromatography in flavour and fragrance analysis: strategies for the identification of known and unknown plant volatiles. Journal of Chromatographic Science. 2004;42:423-439.
Sharangonda JP, Venkatesh S, Vishwanatha T, Saraswali BP. Effect of isolated chromatographic fractions of Citrus medica seeds: In vivo study on anti-implantation and estrogenic avtivity in albino rats. Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology. 2015;3(1):136-144.
Dokosi OB. Herbs of Ghana. Ghana Universities Press, Accra. 1998; 623p.
Ayodele PO, Okonko IO, Evans E, Okerentugba PO, Nwanze JC, Onoh CC. Effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the haematological indices of poultry chicken challenged with newcastles disease virus (NDV). Science and Nature. 2013;2(2):65-73.
Madubunyi II, Asuzu IU. Pharmacological screening of Anthocleista nobilis root bark. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1996;34(1):28-33.
Irvine FR. Woody Plants of Ghana. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, London. 1961;208-548.
Erhabor JO, Idu M, Ojatula AO. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction among the Ilaje people of Ondo State, Niceria. In: Kumar S, (Ed.) Recent Advances in Ethnobotany. Deep Publication, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi, India. 2015;16-21.
Ogunlesi M, et al. Determination of the concentrations of zinc and vitamin C in oysters and some medicinal plants used to correct male factor infertility. Journal of Natural Products. 2009;2:89-97.
Khan MS, Yusufzai SK, Kaun LP, Shah MD, Idris R. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of leaves and flowers of Alternanthera sessilis red from Sabah. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2016;6:157-161.
Padmashree MS, Roopa B, Ashwathanarayana R, Raja N. Antibacterial properties of Ipomoea staphylina Roem & Schult. Plant extracts with comparing its preliminary qualitative phytochemical and quantitative GC-MS analysis. Tropical Plant Research. 2018;5(3):349-369.
Shapla UM, Solayman MD, Alam N, Khahil MI, Gan SH. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) levels in honey and other food products: effects on bees and human health. Chemical Centrifuge Journal. 2018;1:12-35.
Rai DK, Sharma V, Pal K, Gupta RK. Comparative phytochemical analysis of Cuscuta reflexa parasite grown on north India by GC-MS. International Journal of Tropical Plant Research. 2016;3(2):428-433.
Meenaa R, Sreenivasula RP. Do phytoestrogens affect reproductive performance in male rats? Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology. 2014;2(1):1-5.
Salido AAG, Assanga SBI, Lujan LML, Angulo DF, Espinoza CLL, A. L. A. Silva ALA, et al. Composition of secondary metabolites in Mexican plant extracts and their antiproliferative activity towards cancer cell lines. International Journal of Science. 2016;5:63-77.
Thapa R, Upreti A, Pandey BP. Chemical profiling and biological activity analysis of cone, bark, and needle of Pinus roxburghii collected from Nepal. Journal of Intercullectual Ethnopharmcology. 2018;1(1):66-75.