Nano biofilms: An emerging biotechnology applications

  • Kimia Kazemi
  • Yasmin Ghahramani
  • Masoomeh Yari Kalashgrani university of mohaghegh ardabili
Keywords: Biofilm; Extracellular polymeric substances; Biofouling; Bionanocomposite; Bacterial nanocellulose.


Biofilm, a cooperating community of microorganisms, consists of microbial cells attached to the surface. This kind of lifestyle protects microorganisms from environmental threats, prepares higher nutrients for them, and facilitates genetic exchange. However, more sterilant and antibiotics are needed for killing microorganisms in biofilm compared to floating ones. There are various standard methods for detecting biofilms' structure, including Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Some conditions, including hydrodynamics, nutrient availability, surface and interface properties, and content of microbes, will build the biofilm’s structure. Biofilm formation phases include initiation, maturation, maintenance, and dissolution. Biofilms contain extracellular polymeric substances, which cause more mechanical stability, water retention, and nutrient sorption. They may have benefits in the industry, medicine, etc. Some biofilms consist of cellulose bacteria producing bacterial nanocellulose, making the biofilm retain moisture and trap carbon dioxide. These cellulose bacteria can be generated through two methods; static method vs. agitated method.  This review gathered data about biofilm formation, its advantages and disadvantages for microorganisms and environments, and their applications in various areas. In the end, we explain the applications we think they may have.


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How to Cite
Kazemi K, Ghahramani Y, Yari Kalashgrani M. Nano biofilms: An emerging biotechnology applications. AANBT [Internet]. 20Jun.2022 [cited 20Mar.2023];3(2):8-5. Available from: