Recent advancements in Graphene oxide-based for fight with HIV infection .
Recent advancements in Graphene oxide-based for fight with HIV infection .
The only successful trial to date against the HIV is the RV144 trials, and today, due to the role that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) naturally plays in the fight against the HIV, scientists are working to develop bnAbs -induced vaccines to prevent HIV infection. Electrochemical sensors along with nanomaterial’s have been tested for faster detection of the HIV in the body. Among these sensors, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO), glassy carbon modified with polyaniline/graphene (PAN/GN/GCE), and GCE modified with amino- reduced graphene oxide (NH2)- rGO and β –cyclodextrin (β-CD) (NH2-rGO/ β-CD/ GCE) are listed in this review. Today, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are used to treat the HIV, which are not able to completely cure the HIV infection. The main problem with the complete elimination of the HIV is the presence of the HIV latent reservoirs in the body. To this end, several strategies have been used to completely destroy these reservoirs, including "shock and kill" therapy approach, immunotherapy, and gene therapy.
Keywords: HIV vaccine, ERGO, PAN/GN/GCE, NH2-rGO/ β-CD/ GCE, shock and kill, immunotherapy, gene therapy.
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